Icing, occurs when a player shoots the puck across both the centre red line and the opposing team's goal line. Most leagues enforce a “no touch” icing, in which the infraction is called and play stopped as soon as the puck crosses the goal line, regardless of whether or not an opponent touches the puck. No touch prevents rushing forwards at full speed body checking players on the opposing team. Play is resumed with a faceoff in the defending zone of the team that committed the infraction.

One exception to the icing rule occurs when a team is shorthanded they are permitted to ice the puck. 

Offside, a play is offside if a player on the attacking team crosses the offensive blue line entering the offensive zone before the puck, and anyone on the attacking team touches the puck before it leaves the offensive zone. When an offside violation occurs, a linesman will stop play and a faceoff will occur at a dot in the neutral zone near the offensive blue line.

There are three types of penalties: minor, major, and misconduct. Penalties start at 2 minutes in the penalty box. The harsher the penalty, the longer the time or players may be ejected from the game. Common hockey penalties include:

  • Elbowing: when a player uses his elbow to foul an opponent. 
  • Hooking: when a player impedes the progress of an opponent by “hooking” him with his stick.
  • Tripping: when a stick or any portion of a player’s body is used to cause an opposing player to fall. 
  • Slashing: when a player hits an opponent with his stick, or “slashes” him, either to impede his progress or cause injury.
  • Checking from behind: when a player hits an opponent who is not aware of the impending contact from behind and therefore cannot defend himself. 
  • Interference: when a player interferes with or impedes the progress of an opponent who does not have the puck. Also assessed to a player who deliberately knocks the stick out of an opponent’s hand or who prevents a player who has dropped his stick (or any other piece of equipment) from picking it back up. 
  • Fighting: when players drop their gloves and throw punches at each other.
  • Butt ending: when a player jabs an opponent with the top end of his stick. 
  • Cross checking: when a player makes a check with both hands on the stick. 
  • Spearing: when a player stabs at an opponent with the blade of his stick, whether he makes contact or not.  
The rules, penalties and consequences have been minimized in this work due to their complex configurations. Rule books are available at most book stores.